Editorial Board (Issue 15 - 2020)


Editor-in-Chief
Ng Khar Thoe (Dr.)(Research and Development Division, SEAMEO RECSAM, MALAYSIA) (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)  


Managing Editor 
Lay Yoon Fah (Professor Dr.)[Faculty of Psychology and Education, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, MALAYSIA] (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)


Editors
Aye Aye Aung (Dr.)(Yangon University of Education, MYANMAR)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Chin Chee Keong (Dr.)(Teacher Education Institute Tuanku Bainun Campus, MALAYSIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Chua Kah Heng (Dr.)(Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, MALAYSIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Corrienna Abdul Talib (Dr.)(Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, MALAYSIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Diyana Mahmud (Dr.)(Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, MALAYSIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Dominador Dizon Mangao (Mr.)(Research and Development Division, SEAMEO RECSAM)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Edsel O. Coronado (Dr.)(Iloilo Science and Technology University, Iloilo, PHILIPPINES)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Leong Kwan Eu (Assoc.Prof.Dr.)(Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, MALAYSIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Lukman Nulhakim (Mr.)(SEAMEO QITEP in Science, INDONESIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Maman Fathurrohman (Dr.)(Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Banten, INDONESIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Mariam bt. Othman (Dr.)(Research and Development Division, SEAMEO RECSAM, MALAYSIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Mohamad Sattar Rasul (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)(Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, MALAYSIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Mohd. Effendi@Ewan b. Mohd. Matore (Dr.)(Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, MALAYSIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Mohd. Nor Syahrir Abdullah (Dr.)(Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, MALAYSIA) (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Murugan Rajoo (Dr.)(Research and Development Division, SEAMEO RECSAM, MALAYSIA) (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Nabilah Abdullah (Assoc.Prof.Dr.)[Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), MALAYSIA] (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Natthasurachet Promsing (Dr.)(Rakmae School, Ubon Ratchathani, THAILAND)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Nelson Cyril (Dr.)(Research and Development Division, SEAMEO RECSAM, MALAYSIA) (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Ong Eng Tek (Prof. Dr.)(Faculty of Human Development, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, MALAYSIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Parvinder Singh (Dr.)(Teacher Education Institute Penang Campus, MALAYSIA) (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Pedro Lucis Montecillo (Dr.)(Education Program Supervision, Division of Calbayog, PHILIPPINES) (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Por Fei Ping (Dr.)[School of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, Wawasan Open University (WOU), MALAYSIA] (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
R.Indarjani (Dr.)(The Islamic University of Assyafiyah, INDONESIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Reza Setiawan (Mr.)(SEAMEO QITEP in Science, INDONESIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Roslinda Rosli (Dr.)( Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, MALAYSIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Siti Mistima Mat Saat (Dr.)(Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, MALAYSIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Subuh Anggoro (Dr.)(Department of Preservice Elementary Teachers Training, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, INDONESIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Tan Saw Fen (Dr.)[School of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, WOU, MALAYSIA] (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Teh Kim Hong (Ms.)(Training Programme Division, SEAMEO RECSAM) (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Toh Tin Tam (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)(National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, SINGAPORE)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Wahid Yunianto (Mr.)(SEAMEO QITEP in Mathematics, INDONESIA) (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Wan Noor Adzmin bt Mohd Sabri (Dr.)( Training Programme Division, SEAMEO RECSAM) (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Yeoh Poh Choo (Dr.)(Teacher Education Institute Penang Campus, MALAYSIA) (Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)
Zanaton Iksan (Dr.)(Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, MALAYSIA)(Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

 

Contents

1. The Effectiveness of Predict-Observe-Explain-Animation (POE-A) Strategy to Overcome Students’ Misconceptions about Electric Circuits Concepts

Fathiah Mohd Tahir, Nurfaradilla Mohamad Nasri & Lilia Halim


This study aims to determine the effectiveness of Predict-Observe-Explain-Animation (POE-A) strategy to overcome students’ misconceptions about electric circuits concepts. POE-A strategy aims to trigger students’ conceptual change and improve their understanding about electric circuits’ concepts. This pre-experimental study involving 43 Form Four students was conducted at a secondary school in Muar, Johor. In this study, pre- and posttest designs were used to identify and compare the students’ misconceptions level before and after implementation of POE-A strategy. The diagnostic test DIRECT version 1.0 was adapted as an instrument for this study to determine the students’ misconceptions level about electric circuits concepts through pre- and posttest scores. Findings show that the electrical current domain recorded the highest increase of 26% through pretest and posttest comparison, followed by the physical aspect of the circuit domain and energy domain at 24% and 14% increment respectively. The voltage domain showed the least increment at only 14%. Percentage increase in posttest score indicated that students’ misconceptions level declined after the intervention of POE-A strategy. Based on the findings of this study, it is arguable that the POE-A strategy can overcome students’ misconceptions about electric circuits’ concepts. In addition, this strategy can help students to enhance their understanding of the concepts.

Keywords: Misconception; Electric circuits; Predict-Observe-Explain-Animation (POE-A) strategy; Conceptual change

 

2. Development of Framework with Exemplars using Real-World Context to Teach Probability

Queenie Chiu & Tin Lam Toh


Teaching of probability in mathematics classrooms has often been reduced to equipping students with a set of algorithmic procedures and formulas to handle similar questions. Being competent with the algorithmic procedures does not necessarily equate to the mastery of probability concepts. In this paper, we conducted a literature review and a study of the recent development of the Singapore Mathematics curriculum. Also tapping on the problem-solving nature of mathematics, we infused the use of real-world context in teaching probability to secondary school students. This is synchronous to the recent development in the Singapore mathematics education in which real-world context has been brought to the foreground into the school mathematics curriculum. In order to help students truly grasp probability concepts through the use of real-world context, we propose a TIDE (an acronym for ‘Tackle students’ misconception, Introduce probabilistic reasoning, Draw connections, and Encourage problem-solving’) framework for designing a mathematics lesson on probability. An exemplar of a probability lesson using the Monty Hall Problem is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Probability education; Probabilistic reasoning; Real-world context; Problem-solving

 

3. Development of STEM Teaching Module for Rural Primary Schools in Sabah: Need Analysis with Justification and Key Features   

Junainah Jamaludin, Lay Yoon Fah, Crispina Gregory Khan, Khoo Chwee Hoon & Adeline Leong Suk Yee


This paper reports on part of a bigger scale study related to STEM education at primary level. Several education officers have been interviewed to obtain information related to the implementation of STEM education in rural schools. The interview session involving education officers from different fields of job specification and experienced in teaching science in primary and secondary schools. Mixed-research method was implemented including collection of quantitative (survey on needs analysis that was validated and reported earlier) as well as qualitative (observation and interview to be reported in this article) data. A protocol has been prepared by the researchers to focus on questions related to the appropriate science topics to be integrated in STEM, the module features expected by teachers in rural schools, STEM activity suggestions to be included as well as the expectations of rural teachers in implementing STEM teaching. Random sampling technique has been used in selecting the subjects. Results from the interview showed that three out of five subjects could not describe 5E Instructional Model (engage, explore, explain, elaborate and evaluate) accurately even they have been used the phases in the model in their science teaching. Several topics have been proposed by the subjects to be included in the to-be-developed Year 4 and Year 5 STEM module. Some of the problems identified through interviews are short period in science teaching, lack of complete laboratory that able to support STEM teaching, no compilation of STEM teaching manual in rural school and limitation of STEM teaching reference in the context of schools in Malaysia. From the need analysis, teachers claimed that the exposure to STEM must be done at the earliest level of education such as kindergarten. Further research involves the development of STEM modules by considering the needs of rural science teachers. The success of this model is seen through the improvement of students’ achievement and positive attitudes to STEM learning.  

Keywords: Need analysis; Module development; STEM education; 5E instructional model; Rural schools

 

4. Development of Grade Six Mathematics Item Bank by Applying Item Response Theory

Aye Aye Aung & San Lin


The purpose of the study was to construct a Mathematics Item Bank for Grade Six students by using Item Response Theory (IRT). The participants were selected by using stratified random sampling technique. Descriptive research design and quantitative survey method were used in this study. Lesson 1 to 5 of Grade Six Mathematics Textbook (1) and Lesson 1 to 6 of Grade Six Mathematics Textbook (2) were selected as the content area for item bank according to the monthly plan. In the preliminary test, after item analysis with 2-PLM of IRT, out of 219 multiple-choice items, 170 items were remained for three field tests (Form A, Form B and Form C) and each form contained about 56 items. These field tests were administered to 1513 Grade Six students from the selected schools in Yangon Region in which 505 students were administered for Form A, 504 students for Form B and 504 students for Form C. Then, 164 items of field test (56 items in Form A, 55 items in Form B and 55 items in Form C) had the discrimination range from 0 to +2 and the difficulty range from −3 to +3. Therefore, all items were stored in item bank. To support advantage of item bank, a new sample test was developed by using the items from item bank. It was found that this test was more appropriate for examinees whose ability (θ) range is −1.65 to +1.95 and provided the highest information for the examinees with ability level −0.05. In conclusion, it was found that the items that were biased against different groups could not be determined Hence suggestion was made that Differential Item Functioning (DIF) should be calculated in the future study for checking of items that are biased against racial or ethnic minorities.

Keywords: Item banking; Item response theory; Difficulty; Discrimination

 

5. Science Teacher’s Self-Confidence on Integrating Computational Thinking into Classroom Pedagogies for Teaching and Learning

Nora Ramin, Corrienna Abdul Talib, Hassan Aliyu, Marlina Ali & Neni Hermita


With the awareness on the significance of digital skills in relation to Information and Communication Technology, many scholars across the globe indicated the need to include coding starting with primary education up to secondary school science curriculum. In addition, various benefits can be obtained from teachers' self-confidence in teaching that bring about a positive impact on integration of computational thinking skills which will enable students’ improvement of learning. Science teacher's self-esteem with self-confidence is essential component that enhance effective integration of computational thinking into classroom pedagogies for teaching and learning. The study investigated teacher's self-confidence on integrating computational thinking into their classroom instructions. It adopted survey research design. While a total of 40 online questionnaires were sent to the respondents, 32 were retrieved and hence used for analysis using SPSS version 24. Results indicated that science teachers demonstrated higher level of self- confidence on computational thinking. It also indicated that there is no significant difference on self-confidence to integrate computational thinking between genders. Science teachers need to improve their self-confidence in computational thinking skills by demonstrating confidence of knowledge/skills related to programming in various content areas to promote creativity and problem-solving skills among learners.

Keywords: Self-confidence; Computational thinking; Pedagogies; Teacher; Classroom

 

6. Attitude towards Science Learning among Non-Science Majors

Edsel O. Coronado & Mae Angeline T. Tajolosa


Science educators sometimes neglect the attitude of students towards science. Paying attention to the students’ attitudes towards science plays a vital role in the teaching and learning process especially to non-science majors who sometimes dislike science as a subject. This paper examined the attitude towards science among 95 college students in the course on Environmental Science for Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Technology (BS HRT). Three attitudinal variables were investigated using the Science Attitude Scale as modified from the Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scale. Results showed that students have moderately positive attitude towards science. In terms of gender, male has neutral attitude towards science while female has a moderately positive attitude towards science. There was no significant difference in the science attitude of male and female in every subcomponents: (1) Personal Confidence about Subject Matter: t (73.100) = 0.552, p = 0.583; (2) Usefulness of the Subject Content: t(77.571) = -0.838, p = 0.405; and (3) Perception of Teacher’s Attitude: t(55.494) = 1.175, p = 0.245. There is no difference with regards to student’s attitude towards science in terms of gender. On the other hand, there was a significant difference in the level of student’s attitude in terms of usefulness of the subject content among students as determined by one-way ANOVA [F(2,92) = 4.265, p = 0.017]. Moreover, a Post Hoc Test of Multiple Comparison (Tukey HSD) was run and showed that there was a significant mean difference between BS HRT sections A and C which implies that students of these sections find science as a significant subject to learn and apply to their degree course. In conclusion, teachers need to devise a certain strategy to trigger the positive interest of the students to have a positive view of science that could improve the teaching-learning process in science education.

Keywords: Attitude in science; Academic performance; Environmental science; Interest; Motivation

 

7. Web 2.0 in Secondary Science Instruction: Assessing Teachers’ Self-efficacy and Integration Level and the Relationship between Them

Ling Mee Choo, Tuan Mastura Tuan Soh & Ahmad Zamri Mansor  


Affordances of Web 2.0 applications in line with 21st century skills demonstrate the potential of Web 2.0 as a relevant learning platform. This study aims to examine the levels of teachers’ self-efficacy and integration of Web 2.0 in secondary science instruction. The objectives of the study are to: (1) Identify the level of teachers’ self-efficacy, (2) Examine Web 2.0 integration level in secondary science instruction; and (3) Study the relationship between teachers’ self-efficacy and Web 2.0 integration in science teaching. This study is based on a quantitative method by using a set of questionnaires. Research sample consisted of 108 secondary school science teachers from nine schools in Miri, Sarawak who were selected using cluster random sampling technique. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation. Findings revealed that teachers’ self-efficacy level was moderate (M = 3.23, SD = 0.60) while the integration level of Web 2.0 tools in secondary school science instruction was low (M = 2.30, SD = 0.71). Furthermore, this study found a strong significant positive correlation, r (106) = 0.62, p <.001 between teachers’ self-efficacy and Web 2.0 integration level. In conclusion, the levels of teachers’ self-efficacy and integration of Web 2.0 in science education can be further enhanced. Therefore, this study proposes effective in-service training for teachers to use Web 2.0 tools in teaching and learning process.

Keywords: Web 2.0; Integration; Science education; Secondary school; Teachers’ self-efficacy

 

8. Problem-based Learning (PBL) as an Assessment Tool in Science Education: A Systematic Review with Exemplars

Adibah Mohd. Alwi, Corrienna Abdul Talib, Faruku Aliyu, Ng Khar Thoe, Subuh Anggoro & Marlina Ali

Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is one of the constructivist teaching and learning strategies that become very popular and used to promote active learning among students in various fields of education. During the implementation of the PBL approach, it could be used as an assessment tool to evaluate students’ development of cognitive and affective domains as well as the social skills that need to be pursued by them. The analysis through systematic review in this study revealed that quantitative method is the most popular method used in assessing the implementation of PBL in the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education. From this study also it was shown that PBL gives a positive impact on the students’ development regarding their motivation, attitude, interest, perception and overall achievement. In addition, the implementation of PBL strategies can be associated with other supporting materials (as elaborated in the exemplars given in this study), so that it can assist the teachers to be bold enough to handle the PBL activities in the classroom hence to deliver the knowledge smoothly and in a more meaningful way.

Keywords: Problem-based learning (PBL); Systematic review; Education; Assessment; Inquiry; High school

 

9. Development of Learning Materials in Environmental Science Based on Intellectual Capacity, Personal and Civil Responsibility Assessments

Mae Angeline Tad-y Tajolosa

In educational institutions, the development of learning materials is regarded as one of the major aspects that would promote student learning and help in the achievement of academic goals and objectives. To enrich the system of education, research need to be conducted and innovative methods to be promoted. The development in learning materials is brought about on the basis of number of aspects. In this study, the intellectual capacity, personal and civil responsibility on environmental science of the fourth year Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Biological Science students in one of the universities in Iloilo, Philippines were assessed using the validated researcher-made instruments based on the contents of the college readiness standards as described in Commission on Higher Education Memorandum Order (CMO) No. 20 series of 2013. Intellectual capacity gaps were identified by means of least test scores and less than half of the students got the test items correctly from the different topics of the subject while the personal and civil responsibility were noted from the least mean results of the answers of the participants in the questionnaires. Consequently, the identified gaps of the assessments serve as basis for the development of appropriate learning materials. Results revealed that the students had moderate level of intellectual capacity on the contents of environment and its components, ecological concepts, biodiversity, sustaining resources and environmental crises as well as a low level on environmental laws and management. For the personal and civil responsibility, the students showed moderately desirable attitudes toward accessing, validating, and sharing of environment-related information, a high and low level of participation in an individual and agency led initiated environment-related activities respectively. Among the identified gaps in intellectual capacity include the environmental management and laws; low level of awareness on various environment- related programs and plans of local government units, low level of participation in some environmental related activities initiated by agencies and unexplored potential of social media were descriptively statistically described as significant in the personal and civil responsibility. Correcting the gaps of these variables is important because it could improve competence and performance outcomes of the students. An Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (ADDIE) model was utilized in developing the appropriate learning materials which were firmly woven based on solid evidence of the gaps identified in the intellectual capacity, personal and civil responsibility of the learner relative to this subject. Conclusively, the data pertaining to these capacities of students on Environmental Science is highly imperative to attain the penultimate objective of teaching this subject effectively.


Keywords: Environmental Science; Environmental awareness; Attitudes; Development; Learning materials

 

10. The TIMSS Grade 8 Student’s Science Achievement: A Comparative Study between Malaysia, Singapore and Japan

Nur Sahrizan Serman, Corrienna Abdul Talib, Faruku Aliyu & Marlina Ali

When measuring the quality of education of a nation, it is necessary to consider the global standard and preference. Owing to this reason, Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is an international body that regularly carries out an international comparative study to measure the participating countries’ achievement in mathematics and science for 8th-grade students in an effort to evaluate International Educational Achievement. Malaysia, Singapore, and Japan joined the program in an attempt to drive the benefits of the assessment and know the level of quality of their mathematics as well as science education referenced to global standards and perspectives. This study employed the use of secondary data obtained from the official website and database of TIMSS 2015. After analyzing the data, Singapore and Japan were spotted as the top two Asian countries that outperformed in science grade 8 of TIMSS 2015 with an average score of 597 and 571 respectively, while Malaysia was reported as 24th on the list standing below-average with a score of 471 compared with the two countries topping as 1st and 2nd positions. Some of the possible reasons are that; while Singaporean students and school administrator resilient and persistent having curriculum emphasizing spirit and scientific inquiry as well as Japanese parental education and early educational goals for student interest in science contribute are seen as factors that help them achieve a higher ranking in TIMSS. It was concluded that Malaysian students also have the potentials of getting to the top position if they emphasize the critical curriculum components of both Singapore and Japan as well as how it was implemented. This study implies that the structure of the 8th-grade Malaysian science curriculum and how it is implemented needs to be reviewed for better productivity and enhancement of science students’ achievement.

Keywords: TIMSS; Grade 8; Science students; Achievement